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In a metal or alloy, a change in properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperatures.

Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy or aluminum of a higher purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum alloy.

Alloy Steel
Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements (other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, sulfur and phosphorus) added to effect physical or mechanical changes in the steel.

The softening of the steel by heating and holding at a suitable temperature and cooling at a suitable rate (depending on alloy).

The process of making a protective coating to aluminum by anodic oxidation.

Artificial Aging
An aging treatment above room temperature.

Austenitic Stainless
Normally refers to the nickel bearing non-magnetic, non-heat treatable grades. The 300 series.

Raising a ridge on sheet metal.

A fullness in cross section of foil, either center or edges.

Bend Test
Various tests used to determine the toughness and ductility of flat rolled metal, in which the material is bent around its axis or around an outside radius.

Bessemer Process
A process for making steel in which air is blown through the molten iron so that the impurities are removed by oxidation.

Billet (Bloom)
A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging, rolling or extrusion. This product is then processed further.

Box Annealing
Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation.

Blast Furnace
A vertical shaft type of smelting furnace in which an air blast is used. It produces pig iron (approximately 92% iron, 3-1/2% carbon).

A defect in the metal production where gas bubbles are left either on or below the surface of the metal.

Bow - (Camber)
An edgewise curvature. Measured by laying strip or sheet next to a straight edge. The deviation is camber.

Bright Annealing
Annealing in a protective medium to prevent discoloration of the bright surface.

Brinell Hardness Test
A type of hardness testing. The hardness is determined by forcing a hard steel or carbide ball of specified size under specific load.

Brittle Fracture
A fracture with little or no plastic deformation.

A defect. Alternating bulges or hollows along the length of the product with the edges remaining relatively flat.

Burning (Burn Marks)
Heating a material beyond allowable temperature limits. This causes melting or inter-granular oxidation. It may appear as brown or blue marks on the metal.

Smoothing surfaces through friction contact between the work and some hard material such as metal balls.

A thin edge or roughness left by a cutting operation such as shearing, blanking, etc.

Butt Welding
Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them.

Camber - See "Bow"

Canning - See "Oil Canning"

Carbide Precipitation
The formation of metal carbides when ferrous metals are raised to high temperatures (as in welding). Results in increased susceptibility to corrosion.

Carbon Steel
Commercial or ordinary steel as opposed to alloyed steel. Contains carbon up to 2%.

Adding carbon to the surface of iron based alloys by absorption. The oldest form of case hardening.

Case Hardening
Hardening a ferrous steel so that the outer portion, or case, is harder than its core.

Cast Steel
Object made by pouring molten steel into mold.

Beveling an edge.

Charpy Test
An impact test. The metal is usually notched, supported at both ends, and broken by falling pendulum.

Chatter Marks
A defect. Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to the edge at close or regular intervals. Caused by vibrations when material is being rolled.

Chemical Milling
Removal of stock by controlled chemical etch

Chromium-Nickel Steel
Normally refers to the 18% chrome 8% nickel (18-8) stainless steel grades - the 300 Series.

The process of covering one metal with another. Done by welding, fusing, electroplating, etc.

Flat sheet or strip in a long length with is rolled into coils.

Coil set
The steel holds the curvature of the coil after unwinding. Removed by roller or stretcher leveling.

Impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plain metal surface.

Coil Break
A defect. Creases or ridges appearing on sheets or coils as parallel lines cross the width of sheet.

Cold Finish
smooth finish produced by cold working.

Cold Rolling
Similar to cold reduction. Rolling material at a temperature below the softening point of the metal. This reduces thickness and increases hardness (cold work).

Cold Work
Plastic deformation by external force such as hammering, drawing, bending which produces hardening of the material.

Commercial Quality Steel Sheet
Standard quality steel. With a ladle analysis of 0.15 max carbon.

Conformance to a common center. Roundness.

The gradual chemical or electro-mechanical attack on metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.

Corrosion Embrittlement
The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack.

A piece of metal from which a test specimen may be prepared. Usually taken from an integral part of product.

Cutting off of the defective ends of coil or forging.

Cross Break
Defect. Transverse ripples or ribs.

The heavy or raised center in a strip or sheet.

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