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Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the ends of the coil are conical vs flat.

Used generally to mean hardness or toughness. Temper can be induced by cold working (cold rolling), heat treatment or other means of aging.

Tensile Strength
Also called "ultimate strength." The breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. Expressed in lbs. or tons per square inch.

Tensile Test
See Tensile Strength.

Ternary Alloy
An alloy that contains three principal elements.

Terne Plate
Sheet steel, coated with lead-tinalloy.

Permissible deviation from a specified dimension.

Tooling Plate
A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thickness of 1/4" or greater, and with edges either as cast, sheared or sawed, with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applications.

A twisting action resulting in sheer stresses and strain.

Ability to resist fracturing or distortion.

Extremely small quantity of an element, usually too small to determine quantitatively.

Transformation Range
Temperature Range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes place.

Literally "across," usually meaning a direction perpendicular to the direction of working or rolling.

Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials.

Ultimate Strength — See Tensile Strength.

(1) A metal working operation similar to forging. (2) The process of axial flow under axial compression of metal, as in forming heads on rivets by flattening the ends of wire.

Vacuum Melting
Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal; the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure.

Vent Mark
A small protrusion on a forging or casting resulting from the entrance of metal into a die or mold vent holes.

Vibrated Wound
See Oscillated Wound Coils.

Vickers Hardness Test
A hardness test for metal, especially those with extremely hard surfaces. It uses a diamond penetrator.

Carbon steels defective sheets, maybe the ends of large coils.

Water Hardening
High carbon steels that are water quenched after heat treating.

Defect. A slight or significant wave beyond standards set for flatness.

Wedge Shaped
A strip which is thinner on one side than the other side. One of several reasons for camber.

A process of joining two pieces of steel using heat.

Work Hardening — See Cold Working.

Wrought Iron
Iron containing only a small amount of other elements. It is more rust resistant than steel and forms and welds easier.

Yield Point
The load per unit of original cross section at which, in soft steel, a marked increase in deformation occurs without an increase in load. Only certain metals exhibit a yield point. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points.

Yield Strength
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of a 2% is used for many metals.

Young's Modulus
The coefficient of elasticity of stretching.

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