A part formed in a press from a metal slug in a die, usually cold and by rapid application of force causing the metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the die.

Impact Test
Test to determine the resistance of metal to breakage by impact. (See Charpy Test)

A defect. Particles of impurities embedded in steel.

Induction Hardening
Quench hardening by electrical induction.

Indentation Hardness
A test of hardness by measuring the penetration of a pointed or rounded indenter into the metal.

Placement of paper between layers of steel.

Intermediate Annealing
Softening material between periods of work hardening. Example, between very deep draws.

Iron (Fe)
The basic element in ferrous steel.

Isothermal Annealing
Process whereby a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure wholly or partially austenitic, and then cooled to and held at a temperature that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide aggregate.

Isod Test
An impact test similar to the Charpy Test.

Ladle Analysis
The analysis of a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle.

A defect which appears in sheets or strips as layers instead of a solid. Caused by gas pockets in the original ingot. The layering runs the direction of the rolling.

Surface defect, appearing as a seam, caused by folding over hot metal, fins or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface.

Lap Weld
Two pieces of metal lapped, then welded. Normally the edges are beveled or scarfed for better welding.

Flattening rolled metal by passing it through rollers or by stretching the sheet. (Stretcher Leveling).

Light Metals
Low-density metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium, beryllium or other alloys.

Low Carbon Steels
Steel which contains 0.10-0.30% carbon, and less than 0.60% manganese.

MB Grade
A steel wire (.45/.75 C) widely used for springs.

The relative ease of machining a metal.

Machinability Index
Standardized test of relative machinability.

Macro-Etch Test
Evaluates the soundness and homogeneity of material by immersing a sample of the steel in hot acid and examining the etching.

Visual inspection with either the naked eye or under low magnification.

Magnetic-Particle Inspection
A non-destructive method of inspection to determine the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials.

The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the metal is subjected to rolling or hammering. The more maleable, the easier to work.

A distinctive needle-like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition. It is the chief composition of hardened tool steel.

Matte or Matte Finish
Not as smooth as normal mill finish, produced by etching or by rolling with roughened rolls.

Mechanical Properties
The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior when force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical applications: for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit.

Micro Structure
The structure of polished and etched metals as revealed by a microscopic magnification of 10 diameters or more.

Modulus of Elasticity
A measure of the rigidity of metal also called the "coefficient of elasticity."

In steel it covers elements commonly present in simple steel: carbon, manganese, phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.

Mill Edge
Edge of sheet, plate or strip which is untrimmed.

Mill Finish
As produced by mill. Normally dull.

Muntz Metal
A refractory metal, 60% copper and 40% zinc, used for castings and hot-worked products. High strength brasses are developed from this by adding other elements.

Music Wire
This is the highest tensile (polished) wire made.

Nickel Silver
Copper based alloy with 20-45% zinc and 5-30% nickel.

Niobium (Nb) — See Columbium

Introducing nitrogen to harden ferrous steel.

Nitriding Steel
Steel particularly suited for the nitriding process. It forms a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding. (.20-.40 C, .90-1.50 Ch, .15-1.0 Mo, .85-1.20 Al)

Non-Ferrous Metals
Metals with no or little iron.

Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below transformation range. It refines the crystal structure and relieves stress.

Oil Hardening Steel
Steel which is hardened by heat treatment and quenched in oil.

Olson Test
A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal. The metal is drawn over a ball until there is a fracture.

Open Hearth Furnace
A type of furnace where the flame passes over the charge in the hearth, causing the charge to be heated both by direct flame and radiation from the law roof and sidewalls of the furnace.

Orange Peel
The pebble-grained surface which develops in forming of metals with coarse grains.

Oscillated Wound
Coil wound on a reel like thread, as opposed to ribbon or pancake wound which is wound similar to a roll of tape.

Has to do with the arrangement of crystal direction in a plane. Either "preferred" or "random."

The adding of oxygen to a compound. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface resulting in a staining or discoloration. Increased temperature increases the oxidation.

A compound of oxygen with another element.

Pack Rolling
Rolling two or more pieces of steel together. Pack rolling is often used for rolling sheet into thin foil.

The cleaning of metal or part by immersion in a acid bath, usually done after publication.

Penetrant Inspection
Non-destructive test to check for the existence or extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface. A penetrating dye is used for this test.

Nickel alloys containing about 20-60% Fe, used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity.

Permanent Set
The deformation of metal under stress, that occurs after passing its elastic limit.

Physical Properties
The properties, other than mechanical, that pertain to the physics of a material; i.e. density, heat and electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, etc.

Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electro-chemical reactions. In stainless it turns material gray.

Pin Expansion Test
A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or longitudinal weakness.

Pin Holes
Microscopic imperfections in the surface or through a layer or thickness of metal.

(1) A tubular metal product. (2) Defect - A cavity in a casting billet or ingot caused by contraction or shrinkage.

Small sharp cavities in a metal surface.

Planimetric Metal
A method of measuring grain size. The grains within a specific area are counted.

Plastic Deformation — See Permanent Set

The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture.

A thin coat of metal laid on another metal by electroplating, galvanizing, tining, etc.

Pot Annealing — See Box Annealing.

Powder Metalurgy
The art of producing powdered metals and utilizing metal powders for production of parts.

Precipitation Hardening
Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent from a supersaturated solid solution.

Precipitation Heat Treatment
Relates to non-ferrous metal. Any of the various aging treatments, done at elevated temperatures to improve certain mechanical properties.

Material free from visible surface defects.

Process Annealing
The ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature just below the lower limit of the transformation temperature and then cooled. This softens the material.

Proof Stress
(1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads.

Pulse-Echo Method
A non-destructive test in which pulses of energy are directed into a part and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured.

Movable part that forces metal into a die. Used for blanking, coining, embossing, drawing, stamping, etc.


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